The Components of Your Air Conditioner

The Components of Your Air Conditioner

An air conditioner cools the air in your home by transferring heat from inside to outside. Modern cooling systems use a chemical called refrigerant which moves through coils in both the indoor and outdoor units of your system.

The blower fan pulls warm air across the evaporator coil, cooling it as the refrigerant changes from liquid to gas. This cooled air is then distributed throughout the house via ducts.


The evaporator coil is an important component within your air conditioner. The evaporator coil is located inside the air handler and functions as a heat exchanger, just like your refrigerator’s ice maker. As warm indoor air passes over the evaporator coil’s cold surface, the refrigerant liquid in the coil evaporates and transforms into low-temperature gas. This cools the air, and the cooled air is then circulated through the air duct system and into living spaces.

The coolant vapor from the evaporator coil then flows to the expansion valve where it changes back into its liquid state. This process repeats itself as the cooling cycle runs.

There are two types of evaporator coils, cased and Air conditioner uncased. The cased evaporator coil has a metal casing that protects it. It can be installed in a vertical or horizontal position.

The evaporator coil has to be kept clean to ensure that it can operate properly. Dirt build-up on the coils prevents the evaporator from absorbing heat. Over time, this can lower your air conditioner’s efficiency and shorten its lifespan. Regular maintenance, such as cleaning the coils and changing air filters, can help to mitigate this issue.


The condenser is a crucial component in your air conditioning system, helping to transfer heat to external environments instead of back into the home or building. It does this by facilitating the process of phase changes in the refrigerant gas that is housed within the coils contained inside the outdoor unit. This is done through a fan that circulates air over the condenser coil and helps disperse latent heat into the air outside. A clean and properly functioning condenser is critical to efficient long-term operation of your AC system, so it is important that the area surrounding the outdoor unit remains clear of dirt and debris that can clog the fan or inhibit air flow over the coil.

Like the evaporator coil, the condenser is also an important part of the overall cooling mechanism that allows your air conditioner to perform its job. In fact, both the evaporator and condenser work together to cool your space to your exact specifications. However, if the condenser unit becomes clogged or has an issue with its performance, your whole HVAC system may be compromised.

One of the main warning signs of a problem with your condenser unit is an unusually high energy bill that results from your air conditioner having to work much harder to keep your home or building comfortable. You may also notice an abnormal amount of moisture leaking from the unit or hear loud noises coming from it. Regardless of what issue you have with your condenser, it is best to contact professionals as soon as possible.


The thermostat regulates the temperature by adjusting your system’s operation to match your desired settings. Typical mechanical thermostats, like the old ones with dials, don’t allow you to program in advance; instead they switch the system on and off to try to keep a temperature within a small range of your setting. This means it may have to work overtime when you go out, get back, or wake up, wasting energy and money.

Most modern thermostats, however, are programmable and use a simple technology to control your heating and cooling operation. A thermistor (similar to the sensor in your car) allows electrical resistance to change with temperature, and the microcontroller in the thermostat interprets that data and switches the system on and off. Some models even monitor local weather forecasts and adjust to account for changing conditions.

The red wire, sometimes labeled R, carries 24 volts from the system transformer and provides power for the other wires in the thermostat. The white wire, which carries the heat signal (usually labelled W), and the yellow cooling wire, labelled Y, both connect to a terminal in the lower-right corner of the thermostat’s circuit board. A ball in the mode switch controls this terminal, jumping current from a trace to another one. This in turn energizes the relays and enables your air conditioning to operate.


The evaporator and condenser coils of both window-unit air conditioners and central air units should be cleaned regularly. A brush, vacuum, or damp cloth can Air conditioner manufacturer help keep grime from accumulating. A clogged evaporator coil can make your air conditioner produce an unpleasant odor and put strain on the unit’s mechanical components. In addition, a buildup of dirt can cause the copper tubes running from the air conditioner to the house to leak refrigerant.

The fan on the condenser should also be cleaned regularly to ensure that twigs and other debris don’t get caught between the blades. In addition, the evaporator drain line should be flushed every month. A mixture of hot water and vinegar is recommended. The access point to the drain line is usually located under your home’s air handler or in the garage, and it has a PVC cap. Once you’ve opened the access point, pour the solution in the line and replace the cap.

Finally, the outdoor unit of your air conditioning system needs to have adequate space around it to facilitate airflow. Check the area for pooling water, overgrown weeds, and signs of animal nests. Prune trees and shrubs that are too close to the unit and make sure there is at least two feet of clearance around the compressor in all directions.

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